The Civil War, Day by Day

Her Name Was Sojourner Truth

Congress Creates Freedmen’s Bureau

To help the former slaves become self-supporting citizens, Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands on March 3, 1865. The new organization soon became known as the Freedmen’s Bureau. The bureau was first proposed in March of 1863 by the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission. It was organization to regulate the freed slaves’ employment and wages, establish courts that would protect their rights, and promote their education. In addition, the bureau was to oversee the care of Southern refugees after the war. However, Congress did not initially approve the plan, leaving the fate of former slaves to diverse government committees and private philanthropists for the next two years.

"When the measure finally passed in 1865, it included the supervision of lands confiscated by the Union during the Civil War. The following year, Congress moved to broaden the bureau’s powers with more stringent civil rights laws but they were vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. Unlike his predecessor, Abraham Lincoln, Johnson remained sympathetic to pro-slavery Southerners and obstinate in matters of national reconstruction.

Fortunately, the Freedmen’s Bureau succeeded in finding work and shelter for many freed Southern blacks…but their struggle was far from over. In May of 1866, six Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee formed a white supremacist organization called the Ku Klux Klan.

July's Archived Features:

Saturday July 1, 2017
Sunday July 2, 2017
Monday July 3, 2017
Tuesday July 4, 2017
Wednesday July 5, 2017
Thursday July 6, 2017
Friday July 7, 2017
Saturday July 8, 2017
Sunday July 9, 2017
Monday July 10, 2017
Tuesday July 11, 2017
Wednesday July 12, 2017
Thursday July 13, 2017
Friday July 14, 2017
Saturday July 15, 2017
Sunday July 16, 2017
Monday July 17, 2017
Tuesday July 18, 2017
Wednesday July 19, 2017
Thursday July 20, 2017
Friday July 21, 2017
Saturday July 22, 2017



All illustrations by Mort Künstler. Text by Michael Aubrecht, Dee Brown, Henry Steele Commager, Rod Gragg, Mort Künstler, Edward Lengel, James McPherson, and James I. Robertson, Jr. - Copyright © 2001-2016. All Rights Reserved. No part of the contents of this web site may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means without written consent of the artist.